Consejos para cenar fuera con una alimentación basada en plantas
A principios de los años ochenta, el bioquímico nutricional T. Colin Campbell, PhD de la Universidad de Cornell, en colaboración con investigadores de la Universidad de Oxford y la Academia China de Medicina Preventiva, emprendieron uno de los estudios nutricionales más completos jamás llevados a cabo, conocido como el Proyecto de China. En ese momento, China presentó a los investigadores una oportunidad única. La población china tendía a vivir en la misma área durante toda su vida y a consumir los mismos tipos de alimentación, únicos para cada región. Estos tipos de alimentación (bajos en grasa y altos en fibra alimentaria y materiales vegetales) también se contrastaban completamente con las dietas abundantes de los países occidentales. La verdadera naturaleza basada en plantas de los tipos de alimentación en la China rural proporcionó a los investigadores una oportunidad para comparar los tipos de alimentación basados en plantas con las dietas basadas en productos de origen animal.
Historia del Proyecto de China – Parte 1: Una historia personal
Historia del Proyecto de China – Parte 2: El descubrimiento inesperado de un estudio
Sesenta y cinco condados en la China rural fueron seleccionados para el estudio y las características de la alimentación, el estilo de vida y la enfermedad de las poblaciones de cada condado fueron comparadas. Dentro de cada uno de los 65 condados, se seleccionaron 2 aldeas y se seleccionaron 50 familias al azar en cada una para el estudio. Participó un adulto de cada hogar (mitad hombres y mitad mujeres), 6500 para toda la encuesta. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre, orina y de alimentos para un análisis posterior, mientras que se registró un cuestionario y la información sobre la alimentación durante tres días. Los datos se publicaron en la siguiente monografía: Chen, J., Campbell, T.C., Li, J., Peto, R. Diet, Lifestyle and Mortality in China. A Study of the Characteristics of 65 Chinese Counties. Una publicación conjunta de: Oxford University Press, Cornell University Press y The People's Medical Publishing House, 1990.
Los mismos condados e individuos encuestados en 1983-84 fueron encuestados nuevamente en 1989-90, con la adición de 20 nuevos condados en China continental y Taiwán, y 20 familias adicionales por condado, produciendo así 10 200 adultos y sus familias en total. También se recogió información socioeconómica para esta segunda encuesta. Los datos se publicaron en la siguiente monografía: Chen, J., Peto, R. Pan, W., Liu, B., Campbell, T.C. Mortality, Biochemistry, Diet and Lifestyle in Rural China. Geographic study of 69 counties in Mainland China and 16 areas in Taiwan. Oxford University Press, 2006.
Descargar las estadísticas del proyecto
Los archivos de texto y datos de esta publicación han sido digitalizados y proporcionados al público gracias a la Unidad de Servicio de Ensayos Clínicos y a la Unidad de Estudios Epidemiológicos de la Universidad de Oxford en Inglaterra.
El Instituto Nacional de Cáncer de los Estados Unidos (de los Institutos Nacionales de Salud), junto con el Instituto Estadounidense para la Investigación del Cáncer (Washington, DC) proveyeron los fondos iniciales. El Fondo Imperial para la Investigación del Cáncer en Inglaterra también dio un apoyo significativo para la actividad de la Universidad de Oxford. Sin embargo, la mayoría del apoyo para este estudio vino de la gente de China y su Gobierno. Este apoyo fue ‘en especie’, lo que resultó en el suministro de más de 800 años de labor profesional y técnica.
A principios de los noventa, a medida que los primeros resultados del Proyecto de China fueron publicados, un equipo documental de Cornell empezó meses de grabación en los pueblos mongoles, comunas de Shangái, hospitales de Pekín y centros de investigación en las universidades de Oxford y Cornell para crear un video que capturara el alcance y el significado del estudio. La cinta es narrada por Mary McDonnell (Danza con lobos, Battlestar Galactica, El alma de la ciudad).
En el año 2005, T. Colin Campbell, PhD y su hijo, Thomas M. Campbell, MD, compartieron con el mundo los hallazgos del Proyecto de China junto con investigaciones adicionales en El Estudio de China. Su libro éxito en ventas examina la conexión entre la nutrición y la enfermedad cardiaca, la diabetes y el cáncer y la fuente de confusión nutricional producida por cabildeos poderosos, entidades gubernamentales y científicos oportunistas. El Estudio de China es aclamado como uno de los libros más importantes sobre la alimentación y la salud jamás escritos.
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If this defect becomes part of the first round of daughter cells, then this will be passed on to all subsequent generations of cells, with the potential to eventually become clinically detect•able cancer. However, this is an oversimplification of a very complex process. Perhaps two of the more significant omissions are the hypotheses that 1) more than one mutation may be required to initiate and promote cancer, and 2) not all genetic defects result in cancer.
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Foci response for the various charts in this chapter mostly reflect “% of liver volume,” which integrates “number of foci” and “size of foci,” both of which indicate tumor-forming ten•dency. So that the responses from individual experiments can be compared among each other, the data are adjusted to a common scale that reflects the response produced by a standard dose of aflatoxin and by feeding a 20% protein diet.
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These data are for villages SA, LC and RA for women and SA, QC and NB for men, as seen in the monograph (Chen, et al. 1990)
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Dietary fat can be expressed as percent of total weight of the diet or as percent of total calories.Most commentators and researchers express fat as percent of total calories because we primarily consume food to satisfy our need for calories, not our need for weight. I will do the same throughout this book.
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There also were a number of other policy statements and large human studies that were begun at about this time that were to receive much public discussion and that were founded and/or interpreted in relation to dietary fat and these diseases. These included the initiationof the U.S. Dietary Guidelines report series begun in 1980, the Harvard Nurses' Health Studyin 1984, the initial reports of the Framingham Heart Study in the 1960s, the Seven CountriesStudy of Ancel Keys, the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) and others.
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The correlation of fat intake with animal protein intake is 84% for grams of fat consumed and 70% for fat as a percent of calories.376 The China Study
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These biomarkers include plasma copper, urea nitrogen, estradiol, prolactin, testosterone and, inversely, sex hormone binding globulin, each of which has been known to be associated with animal protein intake from previous studies.
For the total dietary fiber (TDF), the averages for China and the U.S. were 33.3 and 11.1grams per day, respectively. The range of the county averages are 7.7–77.6 grams per day in China, compared with a range of 2.4–26.6 grams per day for the middle 90% of American males.
The correlation for plant protein was +0.53*** and for animal protein was +0.12.
In principle, using "cancer prevalence within families" as the outcome measurement more effectively controls for the various causes of cancer that associate with different kinds of cancer,thus permitting study of an isolated effect of the dietary factor.
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The full effects of these fat-soluble antioxidants can be demonstrated only when antioxidan tconcentrations are adjusted for the levels of LDL for individual subjects. This was not known at the time of the survey, thus provisions were not made for this adjustment.
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The cited associations of total animal and plant protein intakes are taken from manuscript under review.
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Now named the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland.
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The flow of blood is related to the fourth power of the radius. Thus, a reduction of seven percent is approximately related to a 30% greater blood flow, although it is not possible to obtain by calculation a more precise determination of this number.
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The study by Poehlman et al. showed high oxygen consumption and higher resting metabolicrate but was badly misinterpreted by the authors. We had very similar results with experimentalrats.
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Estrogen present in its free, unbound form.
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This recently published study is more interesting than the others because vitamin E was measured in a way that is more discriminating by considering the fact that vitamin E is carried inthe blood fat. That is, a high level of blood vitamin E may, at times, be due to high levels of blood fat.
The effects of vitamin C and selenium in a study by Perkins (Am. J. Epidemiol. 150 (1999):37–44) were not statistically significant in a logistic regression model, according to the authors. I disagree with their conclusion because the inverse "dose-response" trend (high antioxidant blood levels, less memory loss) was impressive and clearly significant. The authors failed to address this finding in their analysis.
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Alzheimer's trend was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small number of disease cases.
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There is a potential snag in this logic, however. Homocysteine levels are regulated in part by B vitamins, most notably folic acid and vitamin B12, and people who are deficient in these vitamins may have higher homocysteine levels. People who do not consume animal-basedfoods are at risk for having low B12 levels, and thus high homocysteine levels. However, as described in chapter eleven, this has more to do with our separation from nature, and not adeficiency of plant-based diets.
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Mantente al tanto de las noticias sobre el certificado nutrición basada en plantas enteras y recibe artículos inspiradores y recetas en tu buzón.